Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Xanthium strumarium
Lorence & Wagner, 2020. Literature for Xanthium strumarium var. canadense
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Asteraceae -- The Sunflower Family Bibliography
      Xanthium strumarium

Common name(s): cocklebur, kikania
General Information
DistributionProbably native to the New World, now a cosmopolitan weed.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Midway, Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

HabitatDry disturbed habitats
Herb, 2‒20 dm tall, appressed pubescent or subglabrous.
Leaves petiolate; blade broadly ovate to reniform, 2‒8 cm long, 1.5‒10 cm wide, scabrous and glandular dotted, margin coarsely and irregularly toothed, base usually cordate; petiole 1.5‒10 cm long.
Heads in several to numerous short axillary inflorescences.
Burs broadly cylindrical to ovoid, ellipsoid, or sometimes subglobose, (1‒)1.5‒3.5 cm long, covered with stout, hooked prickles, terminated by 2 straight or incurved beaks.
2n = 36.
Nancy Khan