Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Sorghum bicolor
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Sorghum bicolor
General Information
DistributionNative to northern Africa.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Maui, Hawai`i.

Robust annuals; culms 10-30 dm tall, nodes puberulent to short-pilose.
Sheaths glabrous, compressed, keeled; ligule chartaceous, 1.5-5.5 mm long, apex rounded, ciliate; blades flat, (12-)20-40(-52) mm wide, midrib well-developed, margins scabrous.
Panicles dense and compact, 10-25(-35) cm long, branches numerous, ascending to appressed, pilose, angled, the angles keeled, winged, ciliate; sessile spikelet broadly ovate, 4-6(-6.5) mm long, apex acute, glumes subequal, first glume glossy black, rounded, usually appressed hirsute, nerves 9-11, the nerves prominent at apex, second glume narrower, slightly keeled, 3-nerved at apex, first floret sterile, the lemma 3.8-5 mm long, hyaline, faintly nerved, margins ciliate, apex acute, second floret perfect, the lemma 3.9-4.3 mm long, hyaline, apex bifid, fimbriate, bearing a geniculate awn 5-8.5(-11) mm long, terminal segment of awn short, 2-4 mm long, twisted in lower part, the palea 2.5-3 mm long, hyaline, nerveless, long-ciliate; pedicellate spikelets usually sterile, rarely staminate, narrowly lanceolate, 3.8-5(-6) mm long, pedicel 0.7-2 mm long, with hairs 0.5-0.7 mm long, glumes subequal, first glume 9-11-nerved, flat to sulcate on back, clasping second glume, the second glume narrow, 3-nerved, appressed hirsute near the margins, lemma and palea 5-6 mm long, hyaline, faintly nerved, margins long-ciliate.
Caryopsis reddish brown to dark brown, spreading the glumes apart at maturity, broadly ovoid to globose, ca. 4 mm long, ca. 3.5 mm wide, somewhat dorsiventrally compressed, styles persistent.
2n = 20