Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Sonchus oleraceus
Lorence & Wagner, 2020.
   Asteraceae -- The Sunflower Family Bibliography
      Sonchus oleraceus

Common name(s): sow thistle, pualele
General Information
DistributionNative to Europe, now a cosmopolitan weed.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kure, Midway, French Frigate Shoals, Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Annual herb, 1‒20 dm tall, subglabrous, sometimes with a few glandular hairs in the inflorescence.
Leaves lanceolate, cordate-lanceolate to spatulate, 6‒30 cm long, 1‒15 cm wide, usually lyrate pinnatifid, sometimes merely toothed, sessile and auriculate, auricles acute at base.
Involucre 9‒13 mm high in fruit.
Achenes transversely rugulose and 6‒10-ribbed, 2.5‒3 mm long, ca. 3‒4 times as long as wide.
2n = 16, 18, 32, 36.
Nancy Khan