|Dicotyledon|| Literature for Solanum lycopersicum
Peralta et al., 2021.
|Solanaceae -- The Nightshade Family||Bibliography|
Common name(s): nightshade, tomato, `ohi`a, `ohi`a haole, `ohi`a lomi, `ohi`a ma ka nahele, currant tomato, kamako
|Distribution||Native to the northern Andes of South America, widely cultivated and naturalized in warm temperate and tropical areas.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.|
||Sprawling annual or biennial or sometimes short-lived perennial herbs; stems slender, usually 1-2 m long, densely minutely puberulent and villous with simple and glandular hairs, clammy, aromatic.
||Leaves odd-pinnate compound, alternate, ovate to narrowly ovate in outline, 5-20(-30) cm long, 5-10(-20) cm wide, primary leaflets 3-4(-5) pairs, 3-7 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, ovate or elliptic, terminal leaflet the largest, puberulent with glandular hairs, margins entire, deeply dentate or lobed, apex acute to acuminate.
||Flowers few to ca. 15 in lateral, racemose cymes, sometimes forked, pedicels articulate in the upper 1/3; calyx deeply divided, the lobes narrowly lanceolate, ca. 1 cm long; corolla yellow, stellate, 1-2 cm in diameter, divided ca. 1/2 its length, 5-lobed or 6-9-lobed in cultivars, the lobes narrowly triangular, lobes 8-10 mm, often reflexed; stamens 5; filaments sparsely pubescent on margins; anthers yellow, lanceolate, 8-10 mm long including sterile apex 2-3 mm long, introrsely dehiscent by slits, coherent in a conical structure and united by minute marginal hairs; ovary 2-celled, with an expanded placenta (multi celled in cultivars), ovules numerous; style erect; stigma terminal, not exceeding anthers.
||Berries red, rarely pink or yellow, succulent, globose or depressed globose, 1.5-2 cm in diameter in feral forms, up to 10 cm in diameter in cultivars, smooth or furrowed, pedicel articulation obvious.
||Seeds numerous, dull buff gray, compressed, 2-3 mm long, pubescent with hair-like outgrowths of the lateral testa cell walls, these adpressed and giving a silky appearance to the surface or more often shaggy.
||2n = 12, 24, 36, 48, 78, 84.
||Most previous work on tomatoes have suggested that the cultivated tomato was derived from small-fruited forms called by many authors “var. cerasiforme”. Research into the genetic control of fruit shape and size in tomatoes has shown that the small-fruited forms are not ancestral, but instead a mixture of wild and cultivated forms (Peralta et al. 2021)