Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Setaria parviflora
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Setaria parviflora

Common name(s): bristlegrass, foxtail, mau`u Kaleponi, perennial foxtail, yellow foxtail
General Information
DistributionNative to Europe; naturalized in Hawai`i on all of the main islands except Ni`ihau and Kaho`olawe. In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Perennials with a hard, knotty caudex or with short rhizomes; culms tufted, erect or sometimes decumbent and even rooting at lower nodes, 3-12 dm long, up to 2 mm in diameter, hollow, glabrous, branching from lower and middle nodes.
Sheaths compressed, keeled, glabrous, the margins scarious; ligule ciliate, less than 1 mm long; blades flat, up to 25 cm long, 2-10 mm wide, upper surface glabrous or with a few long hairs near base.
Panicles dense, spike like, 1-8 cm long, up to 2.5 cm in diameter (including the yellow or bronze colored bristles), the primary branches up to 0.5 cm long, the bristles subtending the spikelet 4-12, antrorsely scabrous, 2-15 mm long, rachis puberulent; spikelets green or purple tinged, 1(2) per primary branch, ellipsoid, 2-2.8 mm long; first glume deltate, 0.8-1 mm long, 3 4 nerved, second glume 1.1-1.4 mm long, much shorter than second lemma, 5-nerved; first lemma herbaceous to somewhat coriaceous, as long as the spikelet, 5-7 nerved, midnerve sometimes grooved, apex apiculate; first palea ovate, hyaline, 2-nerved, apex acute; second lemma often purple, rigid, ovate, strongly convex, transversely rugose, apex acute; second palea equal, rugose, concave, keels prominent, enclosing base of the caryopsis.
Caryopsis whitish, ellipsoid.
2n = 36, 72.