Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Rubus hawaiensis
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Rosaceae -- The Rose Family Bibliography
      Rubus hawaiensis

Common name(s): blackberry, raspberry, `akala, `akalakala, kala
General Information
DistributionIn the Hawaiian Islands, endemic to Kaua`i, Moloka`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Click here for detailed USGS map by Jonathan Price
Shrubs with shredding bark; stems erect or arching, up to 40 dm long, sparingly branched, primocanes and floricanes similar, covered with slender prickles up to 4 mm long, the bases sometimes elongated longitudinally, or nearly as often without prickles, also sparsely to moderately or sometimes densely pilose.
Leaves palmately compound, thin, leaflets 3, ovate to rhombic-ovate or deltate-ovate, the lateral ones slightly asymmetrical, the terminal one largest, 8-15(-21) cm long, 5-10(-15) cm wide, upper surface pilose to tomentose along the impressed veins, lower surface densely or sometimes moderately tomentose, sometimes pale, sparsely short-pilose only along veins, margins coarsely and irregularly serrate and also often somewhat lobed, petiolules (1.3-)2.5-3.5 cm long, petiolules and petioles sparsely pilose to densely tomentose, sometimes covered with short slender prickles, stipules linear-lanceolate, 1-1.8 cm long.
Flowers 1-4(-8) in corymbose inflorescences, pedicels 13-30 mm long, pilose to tomentose; sepals ovate, 8-17 mm long, both surfaces sparsely to densely tomentose, apex long-acuminate or caudate; petals dark pink to dusky rose or rarely white, obovate, ca. 13-18 mm long.
Fruit red to dark purple or occasionally yellow, ovoid, ca. 2.5-5 cm long.