|Dicotyledon|| Literature for Plantago pachyphylla
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
|Plantaginaceae -- The Plantain Family||Bibliography|
Common name(s): plantain, laukahi kuahiwi, manene
|Distribution||Hawaiian Islands.In the Hawaiian Islands, endemic to Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, Hawai`i.|
|Habitat||Wet forests, bogs, and alpine grasslands or shrublands|
||Robust to small perennial herbs from a usually stout, unbranched, ± brown long woolly stem up to ca. 2 dm long, ± covered with old persistent leaf bases and forming adventitious roots along its length.
||Leaves pale or dark green, basal or in a tuft at apex of the short stem, spirally arranged or conspicuously 2-ranked, moderately thick to thick and coriaceous, oblong-elliptic, elliptic-oblanceolate, or lanceolate, 1.5-41 cm long, 0.3-8.5 cm wide, (3-)5-11-nerved, the veins ± impressed, the nerves usually not or only slightly converging toward base, upper surface usually glabrous, occasionally tomentose and then usually densely so (Wai`ale`ale, Kaua`i), lower surface glabrous to moderately or very densely pale reddish brown or gray tomentose or woolly, sometimes more densely so along veins, the tomentum at least partly deciduous, margins entire or remotely and minutely denticulate, apex acute, bluntly acute, or obtuse, slightly narrowed at base or gradually narrowed to a winged petiole up to 13 cm long.
||Scapes usually 1 to several, 10-80 cm long, spikes 5-35 cm long, glabrous or loosely and sparsely tomentose to densely woolly, flowers widely spaced to densely crowded, each one strongly ascending to suberect, bracts lanceolate to ovate, 2.5-5 mm long, shorter or slightly longer than the flower they subtend, outer surface glabrous or pilose, margins sometimes ciliate toward apex, ± sparsely woolly at base; sepals subequal, distinct, narrowly ovate to elliptic-ovate, 2.3-4 mm long, scarious except on midrib, glabrous or sparsely pilose, apex sometimes minutely erose; corolla lobes spreading, 1-2 mm long; ovary apparently with 4 or 8 ovules.
||Capsules ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid, (2.5-)2.8-3.5 mm long, included within to slightly exserted from calyx, dehiscent at a point 2/3-2/5 to base.
||Seeds 1-6, black to brown, sometimes reddish black or yellowish brown, ellipsoid-ovoid, 1.6-2 mm long.