Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Paspalum conjugatum
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Paspalum conjugatum

Common name(s): hilo grass, mau`u Hilo, sour paspalum
General Information
DistributionNative to the Neotropics, widely naturalized.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Perennial with extensive, leafy, wiry stolons; culms often reddish purple, erect from slightly decumbent base, 3‒6 dm tall, simple or with 1‒2 branches, glabrous, compressed, conspicuously pilose at nodes.
Leaves with sheath 2‒6 cm long, compressed, usually pilose at throat and along margin near top, but otherwise glabrous; ligule a delicate membrane 0.5‒1 mm long, with a dense line of hairs 1‒2 mm long; blade green to yellowish green, flat, thin, chartaceous, 6‒14 cm long, 5‒15 mm wide, scabrous-ciliate, apex acute.
Inflorescences composed of 2(3) racemes, subopposite, widely spreading at apex of flowering culms, slender, 6‒10 cm long, rachis ca. 1 mm wide, straight or flexuous toward apex, glossy, flat and glabrous on adaxial side, triangular and somewhat grooved on abaxial side, pedicel minute, geniculate. Spikelets pale yellow, loosely imbricate in 1 row on each side of scabrous-ciliate central ridge of rachis, broadly ovate, compressed, adaxial side convex, abaxial side slightly concave, 1.5‒1.8 mm long, apex apiculate, caducous; first glume absent, second glume concolorous, ciliate with long lax hair, otherwise glabrous, 2-veined or 4-veined; first lemma glabrous, similar to second lemma, thin, membranous, with 2 green submarginal veins; second lemma coriaceous, slightly convex, as long as spikelet, glabrous; palea flat to slightly concave, 2-veined.
Caryopses whitish, broadly ovate, plano-convex, ca. 1 mm long and wide, compressed.
Nancy Khan