Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Juncus bufonius
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Juncaceae -- The Rush Family Bibliography
      Juncus bufonius

Common name(s): bog rush, rush, common rush, toad rush
General Information
DistributionThis cosmopolitan, extremely variable species was probably originally native to Eurasia, North Africa, and North America.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Annual herbs; stems green, slender, terete, 0.5-4 dm long, usually tufted, branched from base.
Leaves few per stem, blades flat to subterete, 3-15 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, sheaths with hyaline margins, not prolonged into auricles.
Flowers pale green, solitary, in upper 1/3-1/2 of plant, forming leafy, compound, dichasial cymes, lowest bract leaf-like, each flower subtended by 2 hyaline bracteoles, some flowers cleistogamous; outer perianth parts 4-7 mm long, apex acute to acuminate, inner ones shorter than outer ones, apex acute to subacute, sometimes emarginate and mucronate, all with hyaline margins; stamens (3)6; anthers shorter than to longer than filaments.
Capsules 3-celled, 3-5 mm long, apex and base acute to rarely truncate.
Seeds brown, obliquely obovoid to ellipsoid-truncate, minutely reticulate, 0.3-0.5 mm long, without appendages.
Many numbers reported, from 2n = 30 to 2n = 120