Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Pteridophyte Literature for Hoiokula sandwicensis
Palmer, 2003.
   Thelypteridaceae Bibliography
      Hoiokula sandwicensis

Common name(s): ho`i`o kula
General Information
DistributionHawaiian Islands.In the Hawaiian Islands, endemic to Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Click here for detailed USGS map by Jonathan Price
HabitatMesic to wet forest floors, sometimes near steams
Elevation750-2100 m
Terrestrial, medium-size; rhizomes stout, erect, scaly.
Fronds 20-100 cm long; stipe straw-colored, sparsely scaly with brown to dark brown scales at base, distal stipes mostly glabrous; blade lanceolate, 1-pinnate, tips pinnatifid, rachises grooved adaxially, covered with abundant, short, fine, white, multicellular, sharp-tipped hairs, thick-chartaceous to coriaceous; pinnae short-stalked to adnate, 13-45 pairs, lanceolate, dark green, basal pinnae sometimes smaller, acuminate, margins crenate to lobed, lobes cut less than 1/4 of distance to costae, costules heavily covered with short, fine, multicellular, sharp-tipped hairs, abaxial surfaces pustulate, veins on adaxial surfaces with many short, sharp-tipped hairs pointing toward margins, aerophores at abaxial bases of stalks; veins pinnately arranged with about 8 paired branches, raised above pinna surfaces abaxially, usually 5-6+ pairs anastomosing below each sinus.
Sori medial, 3-7 on either side of midveins; indusia absent.
Specific name from an earlier name for the Hawaiian Islands, the Sandwich Islands.
Nancy Khan