Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Cenchrus ciliaris
Veldkamp, 2014.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Cenchrus ciliaris

Common name(s): sandbur, buffelgrass
General Information
DistributionS. Africa to N. India, introduced elsewhere, and escaping, e.g. in Malesia: Malay Pen. (Selangor), Java (Bogor), Cocos Keeling, Lesser Sunda Isl. (Sumba, Timor), Philippines (Luzon, Mindanao), New Guinea: Irian Jaya (Manokwari), Papua New Guinea (Morobe, Central Prov.), probably much wider spread.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Midway, Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Poaceae - Cenchrus ciliaris Poaceae - Cenchrus ciliaris

HabitatDry, sandy areas, and roadsides.
Perennial; culms 0.25–1 m long, erect to geniculate at base, rooting in the decumbent nodes; ligule 0.6–1.5 mm long.
Leaf blades 9.5–40 cm by 2–7 mm.
Inflorescence 4–8.5 cm long; common axis puberulous, internodes 0.75–3 mm long; stipe 0.2–1.5 by 0.2–2 mm, base obtriangular, puberulous; burs crowded, 7.5–10 by 1.7–2.5 mm, tawny to purplish; outer bristles shorter than the inner ones, antrorsely barbed, one exserted, 10–12 mm long; inner bristles free to connate only at the very base, forming a small flat disc or cup, 7–15, erect, one spine distinctly longer than the others, margins densely antrorsely pilose. Spikelets 1–3 per bur, 3.4–4.5 mm long; lower glume 0–1.5 mm long, 1-nerved; upper glume 1.9–2.25 mm long, 1-nerved; first lemma rarely epaleate, usually paleate, sterile or male, 3–3.9 mm long, 3–5-nerved; second lemma 3.4–4.5 mm long, 5-nerved; anthers 2–2.4 mm long.

2n = usually 36, 44, also 18, 29, 32, 34, 35, 38, 40, 43, 45, 48, 50, 52, 54, 56.
Nancy Khan