Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Literature for Carex echinata subsp. echinata
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Cyperaceae -- The Sedge Family Bibliography
      Carex echinata subsp. echinata
General Information
DistributionIndigenous to Eurasia and Hawai`i.In the Hawaiian Islands, indigenous to Kaua`i, Maui, Hawai`i.
Densely tufted, clump-forming perennials; culms slender, trigonous, 20-40 cm tall.
Leaves filiform, slightly shorter than to longer than the culm, 0.8-1(-1.5) mm wide, gradually tapering to an acuminate apex; sheaths brown, tightly surrounding the culm bases.
Inflorescences spicately bearing 3-7 spikes, exposing the axis at least toward base, spikes androgynous or the terminal one often staminate, rarely a few spikes gynecandrous, ovoid or ovoid-globose, 0.3-1.2 cm long, 3-5 mm wide, sessile; lowest bract 1-2 cm long, longer than the subtending spike but much shorter than the inflorescence; pistillate glume membranous and pale on both sides, the midnerve green, broadly ovate, 1.7-2.8 mm long, acute, the midnerve prolonged, ending in an apical point; perigynium membranous, recurved at maturity, ovoid to narrowly ovoid, plano-convex, (1.5-)2.5-3.5 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide in lower part, apex gradually narrowed to a narrowly deltoid beak, dorsal side 6-9-nerved, the nerves weakly scabrous in upper part, the orifice minutely bidentate, base cordate; stigmas 2.
Achenes ovoid, lenticular, stipitate.
2n = 58