Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Capsicum frutescens
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2020.
   Solanaceae -- The Nightshade Family Bibliography
      Capsicum frutescens

Common name(s): chili peper, pepper, red pepper, bird pepper, nioi, nioi pepa
General Information
DistributionWidely cultivated in North to South America and many tropical regions, but exact locality of origin uncertain. In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Annual or short-lived perennial herb or subshrub, 1‒2 m tall; stems striate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with simple hairs on young growth.
Leaves simple, alternate, petiolate; blade ovate to broadly lanceolate, 2.5‒7 cm long, 1.5‒3 cm wide, margin entire, apex acute to acuminate, base subcuneate, oblique; petiole narrowly winged adaxially, 0.8‒2 cm long.
Inflorescences a solitary flower in the leaf axils and stem forks or more commonly 2‒4 per axil. Flowers on pedicel 1‒2.5 cm long, stout in fruit, erect; calyx cupular, truncate, 3‒4 mm long, lobes minute; corolla greenish white or greenish yellow, divided ca. ½ to base, lobes triangular, ca. 1.5 cm in diameter; stamens 5, inserted toward base of corolla tube, filaments ca. 1‒2 mm long, anthers bluish, oblong, opening by slits, 1.5‒2 mm long; ovary bilocular, ovate, 1.5‒2 mm long, style 1, erect, 3‒4 mm long, stigma small, terminal.
Fruit erect, green or yellow ripening bright red, pungent, ellipsoid-conical to lanceoloid, 10‒20 mm long, 3‒7 mm in diameter.
Seeds yellowish, flattened lenticular, 3‒4 mm long.
2n = 24.
Self compatible.
Nancy Khan