Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Canna indica
Maas-van de Kamer & Maas, 2008; Mabberley, 2008; Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
   Cannaceae -- The Canna Family Bibliography
      Canna indica

Common name(s): ali`iope, Indian-shot, li`iope, poloka
General Information
DistributionNative to the Neotropics, now widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Perennial herb from tuberous rhizomes; stems 80‒200 cm long.
Leaves with petiole very short or essentially absent; blade oblong or oblong-elliptic, 30‒60 cm long, 15‒25 cm wide, apex abruptly long acuminate, gradually tapering to the sheathing base.
Inflorescences a thyrse, bracts lanceolate, 10‒15 cm long, apex boat-shaped, bract of flower whitish, membranous, 10–18 mm long. Flowers with whitish sepals, membranous, oblong-lanceolate, 8‒12 mm long; petals pale yellow, sometimes tinged pink or red, erect, lanceolate, 30‒40 mm long; staminodes 3, conspicuous, dark red, orange, or yellow and then sometimes with red streaks, erect, narrowly oblanceolate, 40‒50 mm long, the inner one fertile and slightly smaller; labellum orange with red spots and streaks, narrower than other staminodes and somewhat asymmetrical.
Fruit ellipsoid, ca. 2.2‒3 cm long, surface warty, warts deciduous.
Seeds very dark brown to black, very hard, globose, ca. 3-7 mm in diameter.
2n = 18, 27.
The starchy rhizomes of forms of Canna indica are edible.
David Lorence