Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

ING Book

Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)

A compilation of generic names published for organisms
covered by the ICN: International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants.


A search on generic name will return all homonyms and any nomenclatural synonyms. This search is not case sensitive. Enter only letters. Names with a diaeresis will be found as well.

The wild card character (*) can be used to do inexact searches. This might be useful if the spelling of a name is uncertain or the user wants names with a particular ending. If the wild card character (*) is at the end of the word, the synonym fields will be searched as well. If the wild card character is at the beginning of the string, only the generic name field will be searched.

Name/Basionym for Type

ING can be searched for the name of the type. This would be the combination if the name was new or the basionym if the species name was a transfer. This search will find all of the generic names based on a particular species combination.

To find all ING entries with a type in a certain genus, just enter the generic name and select the 'Name/Basionym for Type' search.


It has not been possible to keep ING entries current with changes in higher level taxonomy. A search on family name is offered as an aid for the retrieval of blocks of names but the lists will not be complete. Names of fungi and fossils are often classified to order rather than family.


A search on the author string is provided for researchers interested in finding the names published by a particular author. This is a wildcard search so a search for 'Castel' will return names like 'Castellan'. The codes for diacritical marks must be used for searches on author's names. See list at the end of this help file.

Output Format

Diacritical Marks are represented in the ING database as codes. Lists of over 100 names returned by searches display the codes for diacritical marks. The Web display for complete entries correctly shows the accented letters that can be displayed on most Web browsers. However, certain diacritical marks such as the hacek are still shown in their coded form. The chart of symbols coding for diacritical marks used in ING is shown below.

Generic Names from the ING list that are recognized in the publication Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera (Greuter et al., 1993) are denoted with a [C] preceding the entry. The number of the collaborator submitting the entry appears in parentheses at the end of the record. See the menu for the list of collaborators. The date at the end of the entry is the date the entry was last updated on this Web server.

Diacritical Marks

The ING database uses an arbitrary set of ASCII characters to code diacritical marks. The code symbol follows the letter. To look for the author Borzí, type 'Borzi}' in the search field.

ING Symbol


ING Display

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The Index Nominum Genericorum (ING), a collaborative project of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) and the Smithsonian Institution, was initiated in 1954 as a compilation of generic names published for all organisms covered by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. We are pleased to offer a way to search the ING database. We hope that those needing access to information about generic names of plants will use the index and will advise us of potential additions and corrections.

Ellen Farr and Gea Zijlstra, Editors


The original intent of the ING was to bring all generic names of plants together in a single list to reveal homonymy between groups. In addition, ING includes bibliographic citations and information about the typification and nomenclatural status of generic names. The index was first published on sets of printed cards and then in book form in 1979 (Farr et al., 1979). A supplement was also published (Farr et al., 1986). While a second supplement is planned, we recognize that hard copy is immediately out of date, and for users with access to the Internet we believe that the World Wide Web offers promise as a useful platform for a collaborative project such as this. Current work on the ING is supported by the Smithsonian Institution, IAPT, and the University of Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. The content of the database was developed over a 40-year period by the efforts of more than 100 collaborators. A number in parentheses identifying the collaborator appears at the end of each entry. We hope that the community of users will continue to contribute additions and corrections to the index.

This electronic version must be considered a draft edition. The database is constantly being revised as new information becomes available. The ING database is fairly current through 1990. Names in some plant groups are more up to date than others and the editors are making every effort to bring ING's coverage up to date. It is our hope that those needing information about generic names of plants and fungi will use ING and will consider themselves collaborators by letting us know of problems with older names and of recently published names missing from the index. An e-mail form for submitting information is available on the 'search results' display screen.

Additional Information About the Data
The database searched for this Web presentation is a copy of the ING database, which is maintained on another hardware platform. Each entry is followed by the date it was extracted from the original maineframe database (9 February 1996) or a later date if the record was added or updated after that time. New or changed records will be added to this Web presentation at the beginning of every month. Generic Names from the ING list that are recognized in the publication Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera (Greuter et al., 1993) are denoted with a [C] preceding the entry. It has been our policy to verify all names in the original literature. Where this has not been done, the phrase 'non vidi' follows the reference for the name. The ING database records diacritical marks with ASCII symbols following the letter affected. These symbols have not been converted to HTML codes.

Farr, E. R., J. A. Leussink, and F. A. Stafleu, Eds. 1979.
Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). Regnum Veg. 100-102: 1-1896.
Farr, E. R., J. A. Leussink, and G. Zijlstra, Eds. 1986.
Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum) Supplementum I. Regnum Veg. 113: 1-126.
Greuter, W. et al. 1993.
NCU-3: Names in Current Use for Extant Plant Genera. Regnum Veg. 129: 1-1464.

List of Collaborators Contributing to ING

The contributing collaborator's number is listed in parentheses at the end of each entry. After the publication of the supplement to ING in 1986, we decided to add the number of the collaborator responsible for a major correction to the original entry as well. For an entry contributed by collaborator 8 and updated by collaborator 104, the collaborator would be listed as "(8/104)."

1. C. E. B. Bremekamp, The Netherlands. Acanthaceae

2. P. C. Silva, U.S.A. Algae

3. W. Rothmaler, Germany. European phanerogams

4. R. C. Bakhuizen van den Brink, Jr., The Netherlands. Malesian phanerogams

5. P. A. Florschütz, The Netherlands. Musci

6. G. F. Papenfuss, U.S.A. Algae

7. W. T. Stearn, Great Britain. Martyniaceae, Myristicaceae

8. J. Taylor, U.S.A. Musci

9. R. E. G. Pichi-Sermolli, Italy. Pteridophyta

10. J. J. Swart, The Netherlands. Miscellaneous phanerogams

11. F. A. Stafleu, The Netherlands. Nomina conservanda et rejicienda; Linnaean names (1753 only)

12. C. E. B. Bonner, Switzerland. Bryophyta

13. H. Hara, Japan. Japanese phanerogams

14. L. B. Smith, U.S.A. Bromeliaceae

15. P. W. Leenhouts, The Netherlands. Burseraceae

16. J. A. Schuurman, The Netherlands. Crassulaceae, Saxifragaceae

17. R. D. Wood, U.S.A. Characeae

18. L. M. Irvine née Newton, Great Britain. Ceramiaceae

19. H. N. Andrews, Jr., U.S.A. Miscellaneous fossils

20. J. W. Thieret, U.S.A. Scrophulariaceae

21. J. F. M. Cannon, Great Britain. Umbelliferae

22. M. H. Hommersand, U.S.A. Rhodophyceae

23. No names entered with this number

24. R. F. Scagel, Canada. Rhodophyceae

25. I. A. Abbott, U.S.A. Rhodophyceae

26. H. K. Phinney, U.S.A. Chlorophyceae

27. H. B. S. Womersley, Australia. Phaeophyceae

28. P. van Royen, The Netherlands. Podostemaceae

29. A. R. Pinto da Silva, Portugal. Portuguese phanerogams

30. A. A. Bullock, Great Britain. Miscellaneous phanerogams

31. C. R. Florin, Sweden. Gymnospermae

32. M. A. Donk, The Netherlands. Fungi

33. H. O. Sleumer, The Netherlands. Asiatic Proteaceae, Ericaceae and Flacourtiaceae

34. Commonwealth Mycological 1nstitute, Kew, Surrey, Great Britain (collective number). Fungi Imperfecti

35. L. E. Egerod, Denmark. Chlorophyceae

36. S. R. Sparling, U.S.A. Rhodophyceae

37. Y. Yamada, Japan. Sargassaceae

38. J. T. Koster, The Netherlands. Cyanophyceae

39. R. McVaugh, U.S.A. South American Lecythidaceae and Myrtaceae

40. L. C. Wheeler, U.S.A. Euphorbiaceae

41. No names entered with this number

42. G. J. Hollenberg, U.S.A. Phaeophyceae

43. R. E. Norris, U.S.A. Rhodophyceae

44. F. E. Hewitt, South Africa. Rhodophyceae

45. F. Nemejc, Czechoslovakia & A. Chrtkova Zertová, Czechoslovakia. Fossils, from Czech publications

46. F. Stockmans, Belgium. Fossils, from Belgian publications

47. A. W. Exell, Great Britain. Combretaceae

48. J. R. Stein, Canada. Chlorophyceae

49. F. R. Fosberg, U.S.A. Psilotaceae, Rubiaceae

50. No names entered with this number

51. H. E. Moore, Jr., U.S.A. Palmae

52. D. D. Keck, U.S.A. Compositae

53. A. J. Cronquist, U.S.A. Compositae

54. A. Pochmann, Germany. Cryptophyta, Euglenophyta

55. R. S. Cowan, U.S.A. Leguminosae (Tropical America); miscellaneous Fungi

56. H. L. Skuja, Sweden. Rhodophyceae

57. C. A. Arnold, U.S.A. Fossils (New World)

58. C. L. Holm, Sweden. Pyrenomycetes; fossil Fungi

59. W. Punt, The Netherlands. Miscellaneous phanerogams

60. N. T. Burbidge, Australia. Australian Compositae and Leguminosae

61. R. C. Starr, U.S.A. Chlorophyceae

62. P. S. Green, Great Britain. Oleaceae

63. H. E. Luther, Finland. Xanthophyceae

64. V. S. Summerhayes, Great Britain. Orchidaceae

65. M. C. H. Blackler, Great Britain. Phaeophyceae

66. F. A. McClure, U.S.A. Bambusoideae

67. No names entered with this number

68. G. W. Prescott, U.S.A. Chlorophyceae

69. No names entered with this number

70. W. D. Margadant, The Netherlands. Musci

71. R. C. Foster, U.S.A. Iridaceae

72. N. Y. Sandwith, Great Britain. Bignoniaceae

73. J. R. Swallen, U.S.A. Gramineae

74. D. H. Nicolson, U.S.A. Araceae

75. ING Staff, Washington, U.S.A. (collective number, see ING 1979, Vol. 1: viii). Miscellaneous groups

76. J. J. Wurdack, U.S.A. Melastomataceae

77. J. Cuatrecasas, U.S.A. Miscellaneous phanerogams

78. J. E. Dandy, Great Britain. Miscellaneous phanerogams

79. R. C. Rollins, U.S.A. Cruciferae

80. J. A. Leussink, The Netherlands. Miscellaneous groups

81. S. H. Mamay, U.S.A. Fossils

82. V. S. Spevak, U.S.A. Miscellaneous groups

83. G. F. Laundon, New Zealand, Uredinales

84. K. Kilpper, Germany. Fossils

85. R. M. King, U.S.A. & H. E. Robinson, U.S.A. Compositae

86. C. R. Gunn, U.S.A. Leguminosae

87. A. A. Fedorov, U.S.S.R. Miscellaneous phanerogams

88. V. E. Rudd, U.S.A. Leguminosae

89. Texts prepared by ING Staff, Washington and checked by G. W. Martin, U.S.A. (See ING 1979, vol. 1: xvii, xx). Myxomycetes

90. Texts prepared by ING Staff, Washington and checked by F.-E. Eckblad, Norway. (See ING 1979, vol. 1: xvii, xx). Discomycetes

91. K. G. Mukerji, India. Mucoraceae

92. R. Ross, Great Britain. Bacillariophyceae

93. C. E. Hubbard, Great Britain. Gramineae

94. J. A. Stevenson, U.S.A. Ustilaginales

95. L. Jonsell, Sweden. Erysiphales

96. C. T. Rogerson, U.S.A. Hypocreales

97. C. V. Morton, U.S.A. Gesneriaceae

98. H. Manitz, Germany. Convolvulaceae

99. H. E. Robinson, U.S.A. Miscellaneous groups

100. Texts prepared by F. A. Stafleu, on the basis of a manuscript of R. Santesson, Sweden. Interpretations and errors to be attributed to Stafleu. Lichenes

101. No names entered with this number

102. I. L. Conners, Canada. Fungi

103. A. M. Blazer, U.S.A. Fossils

104. G. Zijlstra, The Netherlands. Fossils; Bryophyta; miscellaneous phanerogams

105. D. Myers, U.S.A. Fungi

106. T. Gilliam, U.S.A. Fungi

107. A. Traverse, U.S.A. Sporae Dispersae

108. No names entered with this number

109. C. Reed, U.S.A. Miscellaneous groups

110. E. R. Farr, U.S.A. Fungi; Lichenes; miscellaneous groups

111. L. A. Garay, U.S.A. Orchidaceae

112. S. G. Zhilin, U.S.S.R. Fossils, from Russian publications

113. M. R. Crosby, U.S.A. Musci

114. J. Hafellner, Austria. Lichenes

115. A. B. Doweld, Russia. Cacti, Fossils

116. K. N. Gandhi, USA. Miscellaneous phanerogams

Contact the editors: (Ellen Farr for Fungi, Algae and Ferns) (Gea Zijlstra for Phanerogams, Bryophytes and Fossils)

Farr, E. R. and G. Zijlstra, eds. Index Nominum Genericorum (Plantarum). 1996+. <> (date information retrieved).

[When data found on the ING Web site are cited, include the date the information was retrieved.]