Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Zingiber zerumbet
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
   Zingiberaceae -- The Ginger Family Bibliography
      Zingiber zerumbet

Common name(s): ginger, `awapuhi, `awapuhi kuahiwi, `opuhi, shampoo ginger, wild ginger
General Information
DistributionNative range uncertain, perhaps India. Long cultivated in SE Asia and carried by humans throughout the Pacific region where it has become naturalized on many islands. In the Hawaiian Islands, a Polynesian introduction on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Deciduous, seasonally dormant herb with numerous leafy shoots 0.75‒2 m tall.
Leaves with petiole 4‒5 mm long, pubescent, ligule membranous, 1.5‒4 cm long, entire, pubescent or glabrate, sheath reddish, 3‒6.5 cm long, pubescent; blade lanceolate, 14‒40 cm long, 3‒8.5 cm wide, pubescent on adaxial surface along midrib and on abaxial surface.
Inflorescences with peduncle 9‒50 cm long; spikes variable, ovoid, obovoid, globose, ellipsoid, rhomboid, cylindrical, or somewhat fusiform, 3.5‒10.5 cm long, 1.75‒5.5 cm wide, bracts green when young, becoming pale and finally red, closely imbricate, ovate, obovoid-rhomboid, or broadly elliptic, 1.5‒4 cm long, 1.25‒4 cm wide, glabrate to pubescent, margin membranous, apex not incurved. Flowers with calyx 13‒17 mm long; corolla whitish to pale to dark yellow, tube 2‒3 cm long, lobes 1.5‒2.5 cm long; labellum orange to yellow, ovate, orbicular, or suborbicular, 1.2‒2 cm long, 1.5‒2 cm wide, apex emarginate; anther pale yellow, 8‒10 mm long.
Fruit red, obovoid, ca. 12 mm long and 8 mm wide.
Seeds not seen, rarely produced.
2n = 22.
Nancy Khan