Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Stenotaphrum secundatum
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Stenotaphrum secundatum

Common name(s): `aki`aki haole, buffalo grass, manienie `aki`aki, manienie `aki`aki haole, manienie mahikihiki, St. Augustine grass
General Information
DistributionNative to both shores of the Atlantic Ocean, and widely used as a lawn grass and sand binder.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Midway, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Extensively creeping perennial, stolons with long internodes and short leafy branches; flowering culms ascending, 1‒3 dm tall, branched, glabrous, compressed.
Leaves subopposite and equitant, except in the distal part of flowering branches; sheath 3‒6 cm long, compressed, keeled, pale at base, usually membranous on margin, sparsely villous at throat and on collar, otherwise glabrous; ligule ciliate, usually less than 0.5 mm long; blade firm, stiff, 3‒30 cm long, 3‒10 mm wide, adaxial surface scabrous, abaxial surface glabrous, apex rounded, ± split.
Inflorescences a raceme, 3‒8 cm long, terminal and sometimes axillary. Spikelets usually in pairs, rarely solitary or in threes, 5‒6 mm long, pedicel 2‒4 mm long, glabrous; first glume minute, scalelike, to 1 mm long, second glume 5‒6 mm long, 7‒9-veined; first lemma firm, 5‒6 mm long, faintly 3‒5-veined; second lemma 4‒5 mm long, faintly 5‒7-veined, abruptly acuminate; palea membranous, ovate, 4‒5 mm long, chartaceous, glabrous, apex acute, margin inrolled.
Caryopses dark brown, ovoid, plano-convex, ca. 1.5 mm long.
2n = 18, 20, 36, 54, 72
Nancy Khan