Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Rubus argutus
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Rosaceae -- The Rose Family Bibliography
      Rubus argutus

Common name(s): blackberry, raspberry, `ohelo `ele`ele, prickly Florida blackberry
General Information
DistributionNative to central and eastern United States.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Erect or becoming arching shrubs; stems stiff and usually erect in open areas, ± decumbent in shaded sites, primocanes 10-30 dm long, angled, covered with stout, straight or hooked prickles up to 6(-8) mm long, their bases usually longitudinally elongated, also sparsely pilose, lateral branches of floricanes moderately to densely pilose, prickles usually smaller.
Primocane leaves palmately compound, leaflets (3)5, all similarly shaped, elliptic, oblong-oblanceolate, or ovate, the terminal one usually 8-13 cm long, 3.5-5(-8) cm wide, upper surface glabrate, lower surface usually soft pilose and midrib usually with small prickles, margins coarsely and irregularly serrate, terminal leaflet with longest petiolule usually 2-4 cm long, petiolules and petioles usually pilose and with prickles; floricane leaves similar to those of primocanes but smaller, leaflets 3(5), the terminal one usually only 5-9 cm long.
Flowers in short, open racemes, pedicels 15-50 mm long, moderately to densely villous (hairs not glandular or sometimes some of them glandular) and with prickles; petals white, obovate, 13-20 mm long.
Fruit black at maturity, subglobose to oblong, 1.5-2 cm long, cohering to the tardily separating receptacle.
2n = 14, 21