Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Plumbago zeylanica
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2020.
   Plumbaginaceae -- The Leadwort, Plumbago Family Bibliography
      Plumbago zeylanica

Common name(s): leadwort, `ilie`e, `ilihe`e, hilie`e, lauhihi (Ni`ihau)
General Information
DistributionNative to the Old World tropics ranging eastward to the Hawaiian Islands.In the Hawaiian Islands, indigenous to Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Click here for detailed USGS map by Jonathan Price
Sprawling shrub, 1‒3 m tall; stems 0.5‒2.5 m long.
Leaves short-petiolate; blade ovate, 3‒12.5 cm long, 2‒5 cm wide, well developed on flowering stems, both surfaces glabrous, apex acute to acuminate, base rounded to broadly cuneate; petiole 0.3‒1.5 cm long, base auriculate.
Inflorescences a raceme, 6‒30 cm long, rachis stipitate glandular; bracts small. Flowers with calyx 7‒11 mm long, densely stipitate glandular, glands much longer than those of rachis, ribs dark green; corolla white, tube 18‒23 mm long, lobes obovate, 6‒7 mm long; anthers blue or purple; ovary and style glabrous.
Fruit oblong, ca. 4‒5 mm long, glabrous.
Seed dark purplish brown, ca. 4 mm long.
2n = 16, 28*.
Nancy Khan