Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Kalanchoe pinnata
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2020.
   Crassulaceae -- The Orpine Family Bibliography
      Kalanchoe pinnata

Common name(s): palm beach bells, `oliwa ku kahakai, air plant, life plant
General Information
DistributionNative range uncertain, possibly Madagascar, now widely established in many tropical and subtropical areas.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Hawai`i.

Glabrous, succulent perennial herb; stem hollow, 5‒20 dm long, rarely branched, producing vegetatively by adventitious shoots from base.
Proximal and uppermost leaves simple, medial ones usually pinnately compound, opposite, petiolate; leaflets 3‒5, flat, elliptic, 5‒20 cm long, 2‒10 cm wide, margin crenate, sometimes producing bulbils; petiole 2‒10 cm long.
Inflorescences a paniculate cyme, 20‒80 cm long, cymules pendent on pedicel 1‒2.5 cm long. Flowers with sepals pale yellow-green, streaked with red, connate, cylindrical, inflated and papery, tube 2.5‒4.5 cm long, lobes ca. 1 cm long; corolla 3‒6 cm long, exserted part maroon, basal part pale green, sparsely glandular pubescent.
Fruit 12‒13 mm long, 2 mm wide, narrowly ovoid, beaked.
Seeds numerous, brown, striate, linear-oblong, 0.5‒0.7 mm long, 0.2 mm wide.
2n = 34, 36, 38, 40.
Spreads mainly vegetatively from leaf and stem fragments and bulbils.
David Lorence