Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Dicotyledon Literature for Euphorbia heterophylla
Wagner et al., 1990, 1999.
   Euphorbiaceae -- The Spurge Family Bibliography
      Euphorbia heterophylla

Common name(s): spurge, kaliko
General Information
DistributionNative from southern United States to Argentina and the West Indies, naturalized in the Old World tropics.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Midway, Ni`ihau, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Robust annual herbs; stems (1-)2-8 dm long, glabrous to pilose.
Leaves green, sometimes floral leaves white or with splotches of purple at base, never red, alternate below, opposite above, broadly ovate, elliptic, obovate, or panduriform, rarely linear, blades 4-12 cm long, 0.3-7 cm wide, glabrous or pilose, margins entire to coarsely serrate, apex acute, short-acuminate, or short-cuspidate, base rounded to cuneate, petioles (0.5-)1-4 cm long, stipules absent or minute and gland-like.
Cyathia in dense terminal cymes; involucre 2-2.5 mm high, glabrous, gland 1, cup-shaped with a circular opening, without an appendage; male flowers numerous.
Capsules subglobose, 3-4 mm long, glabrous.
Seeds dark brownish gray to black, sometimes mottled, truncate-ovoid, angled, 2-2.5 mm long, coarsely tuberculate, ecarunculate.
2n = 28, 38, 54, 56