Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Literature for Epilobium ciliatum subsp. glandulosum
Hoch 2008 (unpub.). Literature for Epilobium ciliatum
Hoch 2008 (unpub.), Raven and Raven, 1976. Literature for Epilobium ciliatum subsp. ciliatum
Hoch 2008 (unpub.); Hoch FMOnag. Literature for Epilobium ciliatum subsp. watsonii
Hoch 2008 (unpub.).
   Onagraceae -- The Evening Primrose Family Bibliography
      Epilobium ciliatum
General Information
DistributionMoist places, especially where disturbed, in North America from Newfoundland to Alaska, south to Baja California, Sonora, New Mexico, and Virginia. Widely naturalized in Europe, especially in the north-west, and also in the Hawaiian Islands (Raven 1967a). In Australasia, it occurs in waste places, especially where moist, and in swamps, along rivers, and about ponds, and also as a garden weed. In Australia itself, it grows as a weed in commercial nurseries in several centres and is commonly naturalized in the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales, in eastern Victoria, and in Tasmania; mostly in tableland areas, to c. 1 700 m elevation. In New Zealand, it occurs throughout the North and South islands and Stewart Island; from sea level to 900 m elevation (once collected at 1 400 m on Maungapohatu). One plant was collected on Campbell Island in 1961, two small but apparently healthy plants about three-quarters of a mile away in 1970; both were in prepared garden soil. The introduction and spread of this species in Australasia were discussed on pp. 63-4.
Erect perennial herb (3-)10-120(-190) cm tall, well-branched or simple, perennating from leafy basal rosettes or large fleshy condensed underground shoots; stems terete, often thick, light-colored to reddish, covered on at least the apical portion with short subappressed eglandular and /or gland-tipped hairs, with raised lines of strigulose hairs decurrent from the margins of the petioles, or the whole plant covered with dense sericeous pubescence.
Leaves basal and cauline, (0.5-) 3-12 (-12) cm long, (0.2-) 0.6-5.5 cm wide, at least lower cauline leaves opposite, very narrowly lanceolate or ovate to elliptic, basal leaves commonly obovate, subglabrous except for strigillose margins, or sometimes densely strigillose throughout, serrulate, with 15-40 irregular teeth on each side, lateral veins conspicuous, 4-10 on each side of midrib, base obtuse to abruptly rounded, apex subacute to acuminate, serrulate, mostly longer than internodes they subtend, petiole 0-0.5 (-1) cm long.
Inflorescence nodding. Flowers erect, ovaries covered with a mixture of strigulose and glandular hairs, 8-40 mm long, on pedicles 2-14 mm long, floral tube 0,5-2.6 mm deep, 0.9-3.5 mm across, a ring of long villous hair inside, sepals often reddish, 2-7.5 mm long, 0.7-2.5 mm wide, sometimes keeled, strigulose and glandular pubescent, petals white to rose purple, 2-14 mm long, 1.3-6.3 mm wide, the notch 0.4-2.5 mm deep, staminal filaments white or cream to purple, those of the longer stamens 1.4-7 mm long, those of shorter ones 0.6-5.2 mm long, anthers cream or yellow to white, 0.4-1.8 mm long, 0.26-0.9 mm wide, those of at least the longer stamens often shedding pollen directly onto the stigma, style cream to yellow, 1.1-8.5 mm long, stigma cream to orange-yellow, narrowly to broadly clavate or subcapitate, 0.8-2.8 mm long. 0.4-1.2 mm across, rarely exerted beyond the anthers.
Capsule loculicidal, (15-) 30-100 mm long, 1.1-2.5 mm in diameter, strigulose and glandular-pubescent, on pedicels 2-15 (-40) mm long, rarely subsessile.
Seeds many, in 1 row per locule, (0.6-)0.8-1.6(-1.9) mm long, (0.26-)0.3-0.64 mm wide, narrowly obovoid, the chalazal collar pellucid, 0.02-0.32 long, 0.08-0.38 in diameter, grey-brown, the abaxial surface marked with conspicuous parallel longitudinal ridges of laterally flattened papillae, tuft of hairs white, 6-7 mm long.
Gametic chromosome number: n = 18.
FNA, Flowers November to March, occasionally in other months in protected sites.