Flora of the Hawaiian Islands
Monocotyledon Literature for Cynodon dactylon
Wagner et al. 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
   Poaceae -- The Grass Family Bibliography
      Cynodon dactylon

Common name(s): Bermuda grass, manienie, manienie haole
General Information
DistributionPossibly native to tropical Africa or the Middle East, but now widely cultivated and naturalized.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, Laysan, French Frigate Shoals, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.

Perennial, strongly rhizomatous or stoloniferous; culms decumbent and rooting at proximal nodes, 2‒6(‒8) dm long.
Leaves with smooth sheath, margin scarious, sometimes prolonged as lateral extensions of the ligule, sometimes pilose toward apex; ligule a short, fringed membrane 0.2‒0.5 mm long, sometimes with some longer hairs on throat; blade flat, lax, 1.5‒3(‒4) mm wide, adaxial surface sometimes puberulent, margin scaberulous.
Inflorescences of panicles composed of 3‒6(‒9) digitately arranged spikes, these 3‒5(‒6.5) cm long, joints short-pilose. Spikelets 1-flowered, 2‒2.8 mm long, sessile; glumes small, compressed, 1-veined, keeled, keel scaberulous, first glume lanceolate, curved, 0.7‒1.5(‒2) mm long, second glume lanceolate, straight, 1.2‒2(‒2.5) mm long, tapered into a short awn tip; lemma broadly ovate, 1.8‒2.2(‒2.5) mm long, 3-nerved, lateral veins submarginal, veins glabrous or pubescent; palea subequal to lemma.
Caryopsis ellipsoid, 2.2-2.7 mm long.
2n = 18, 26, 27, 30, 36, 40, 54
Warren Wagner