|Monocotyledon|| Literature for Cynodon dactylon
Wagner et al. 1990, 1999; Lorence & Wagner, 2019.
|Poaceae -- The Grass Family||Bibliography|
Common name(s): Bermuda grass, manienie, manienie haole
|Distribution||Possibly native to tropical Africa or the Middle East, but now widely cultivated and naturalized.In the Hawaiian Islands, naturalized on Kure, Midway, Pearl and Hermes, Laysan, French Frigate Shoals, Kaua`i, O`ahu, Moloka`i, Lana`i, Maui, Kaho`olawe, Hawai`i.|
||Perennial, strongly rhizomatous or
stoloniferous; culms decumbent and
rooting at proximal nodes, 2‒6(‒8) dm
||Leaves with smooth sheath, margin
scarious, sometimes prolonged as lateral extensions of the ligule, sometimes pilose toward apex; ligule a short, fringed membrane 0.2‒0.5 mm long, sometimes with some longer hairs on throat; blade flat, lax, 1.5‒3(‒4) mm wide, adaxial surface sometimes puberulent, margin scaberulous.
||Inflorescences of panicles composed of 3‒6(‒9) digitately arranged spikes, these 3‒5(‒6.5) cm long, joints
short-pilose. Spikelets 1-flowered, 2‒2.8 mm long, sessile; glumes small, compressed, 1-veined, keeled, keel scaberulous, first glume lanceolate, curved, 0.7‒1.5(‒2) mm long, second glume lanceolate, straight, 1.2‒2(‒2.5) mm long, tapered into a short awn tip; lemma broadly ovate, 1.8‒2.2(‒2.5) mm long, 3-nerved, lateral veins submarginal, veins glabrous or pubescent; palea subequal to lemma.
||Caryopsis ellipsoid, 2.2-2.7 mm long.
||2n = 18, 26, 27, 30, 36, 40, 54